Immune checkpoint inhibitors as first line in advanced melanoma: Evaluating progression-free survival based on reconstructed individual patient data
Ossato A., Damuzzo V., Baldo P., Mengato D., Chiumente M., Messori A.
Analisi statistiche e metanalisi
Background: In patients with advanced melanoma, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent the mainstay for first line treatment. Recently, relatlimab+nivolumab was proposed as a new combination therapy. This review was aimed at summarizing the current data of effectiveness for ICIs. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the endpoint of our analysis.
Methods: After a standard literature search, Phase II/III studies comparing different ICI regimens in previously untreated advanced melanoma patients were analyzed. Patient-level data were reconstructed from Kaplan-Meier curves by application of the IPDfromKM method. These reconstructed datasets were used to perform indirect comparisons between treatments. Standard statistical testing was used, including hazard ratio and medians. A secondary analysis employed the restricted mean survival time.
Results: Six trials were included in our analysis. Information on PFS from these trials was pooled according to the following treatments: nivolumab or pembrolizumab as monotherapy, or in combination with ipilimumab, and relatlimab + nivolumab. Pembrolizumab+ipilimumab showed significantly better PFS compared with the other treatments; nivolumab+ipilimumab ranked second; the other treatments showed a similar survival pattern.
Conclusions: The picture of comparative effectiveness resulting from our analysis is complex. The IPDfromKM method is advantageous because it accounts for the length of follow-up but loses the balance between treatment group and controls determined by randomization. Based on indirect comparisons, the combination of pembrolizumab+ipilimumab showed a particularly high efficacy, and so deserves further investigation. While the effect of between-trial differences in inclusion criteria plays an important role, our results do not support the proposal of relatlimab+nivolumab as a new standard of care.
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